FCI #218, Origin: Mexico
Height: 6-9 in, Weight: 2.2 - 6 lb
Grooming/Shedding: LOW, Coat: short or long
Ease of training: LOW, Energy level: MEDIUM, Span of life: 15-17 years
Breed: Chihuahua belong to one of the most ancient and interesting breeds, the history of the origin of which there are many legends and disputes, and to this day. Many prominent historians have been studying the origin of Chihuahuas. A theory of their origin are sometimes so romantic and striking, which is often regarded as a legend or a fairy tale ...
The most popular and generally accepted theory about the origin of the Chihuahua connects the appearance of the breed with the history of ancient Indian tribes of the Maya, Toltec and Aztec. Very little is known about the breed since the Mayan culture.
There is information that is already in 5 century AD in today's Mexico existed "Techichi" - a small long-haired dog with a heavy skeleton, and possibly dumb, which was part of the Toltec culture, which had come to him, perhaps, more and more of the ancient tribes of the Incas. This, presumably, was the ancestor of the modern Chihuahua. "Techichi" dogs at Toltec culture were depicted in the carvings on the stone in the monastery Uehotsingo, located near the highway leading from Mexico City to Puebla.
This monastery was founded by Franciscan monks in 1530 and built of stone slabs pyramid Cholula, folded Toltec Indians. Similar drawings depicting ancestors chihuahua - Techichi were found on the Yucatan Peninsula in the ancient Indian city of Chichen Itza. In these miniatures it is easily recognizable modern Chihuahua. In 1850, were found numerous remains of these dogs during excavation of the settlement Tulu, near modern Mexico and the ruins of the palace of the last Aztec emperor - Montezuma, near Casa Grande - Mexican province of Chihuahua (Chihuahua).
Other historians argue that the modern chihuahua is a result of mixing with a little Techichi Hairless Dog, appeared from the east, probably from China.
Civilization of the Indian tribes is perhaps the most mysterious in the whole world, and revered their little dogs have played an important role in religious and mystical life of the Indians. Toltec were conquered by the Aztecs, and as a result of several centuries, a little dog becomes a prize or a toy for the very rich people. Aztec nobility was obsessed with these tiny dogs, and even when the master died, he never parted with it - a dog sacrificed to the gods, burning with the remains of the owner, believing that the sins of the people will go to the dog, which was like the conductor of the soul his master through the underground world of the dead, lighting his way with his glittering ruby eyes, chasing away evil spirits and bringing her to where she find eternal peace. Aztec civilization existed for 500 years to as long as the Spanish conquistadors, led by Cortes conquered the country is not in early XIV century.
Little is known about the chihuahua from the XIV to XIX century. There are writings that these little dogs were on the verge of extinction and were mainly used for human consumption as a meat dish.
Around 1800 several Chihuahuas were found in the property of the peasants who lived near the ruins of the castle the last monarch of the Aztec emperor Montezuma. These dogs had fontanelle-maleru - boneless place in the middle of the skull, well developed fingers, big expressive eyes, which is typical for the modern Chihuahua. Around the same time, these same dogs were also found in other parts of the country, namely, Arizona and Texas expanses and they were given specific names: "Mexican dog, Arizona dog, a Texas dog." American travelers began to deliver these tiny dogs in the country as gifts, mostly from the Mexican state of Chihuahua. From this and become established permanent name of the breed.
James Watson, the famous canine, the author of several publications, the organizer of the dog show was the first known breeder of Chihuahuas in the U.S.. In May 1888 he wrote in his publications recommendations for this breed. Watson's first dog was a female Chihuahua named Manzanita. Over the next few years Watson has acquired several chihuahua for breeding. He believed that the species can fundamentally change not only in size and characteristics, but also by the type of coat and color.
At the end of 1800 American Kennel Clubs began to organize . "The Book of the American Kennel Club in 1890 first introduced a Chihuahua to participate in dog shows.
First haired chihuahua was registered in the AKS stud book in 1904 under the number 2291, his nickname Midget breeder X. Rainer from Texas. And twenty years later, 170 dogs of this breed were included in the stud book of America, among them - 38 champions. In 1907 such book was started in England.
The first official report about the breed appeared in the American press in 1914 and in 1923 was developed the first breed standard and formed the American club chihuahua. In 1949, it was founded the British club chihuahua, and the first long-haired chihuahua originated in England in 1954, the same year in England was developed jointly with the Americans and adopted the standard, and in 1954 the breed was divided into two separate species: woolly and smooth-haired chihuahua. Until then, long-haired and short haired chihuahua in the exhibitions were tried together, appreciating by two types represented in the classification.
The first official standard was adopted in 1934, then the new standard was published in 1954 and last - in 1972 and since then the specific changes he underwent.
Promotion of the breed in Europe was contributed to the famous singer Adelina Patti. In 1890 the President of Mexico gave her Chihuahua, hidden in a bouquet of flowers.
Now Chihuahuas can be found in almost all countries of the world, but most loved it in Latin America, U.S., Canada and England. Mexicans consider it their national breed.
General Features: British and American standards for Chihuahuas are almost identical. Mexican standard, which fully complies with the FCI, in more detail, and here are some shortcomings, which, for example, accompanied to very small size of dog, are considered essential and are classified as a defect or disproportion, which is equivalent to defects. Furthermore, according to Mexican standards, the breed has a purpose that is characterized as a companion, guard or watchman.
Chihuahua - is the smallest of the world's breeds of dogs. Indeed, in the U.S., which is their second home, is no uncommon chihuahua weighing 1.7 lb, although in our country, I met the most little chihuahua weighing 1.8-2 lb. This is truly a unique creature.
Tiny chihuahua gaining more fans in this country. Appearance and size of chihuahua is very diverse. No other breed standard does not exist sixfold variations in weight, like a chihuahua - from 2 lb grams to 6 lb.
Permissible whole range of existing colors - from blue-black to blinding white, as well as two-, three-colored, mottled with tan, tiger, various masks and markings. By type of coat chihuahua is divided into long-haired and smooth-hair.
Temperament: Chihuahua - lively and fearless dog. There are different varieties of a different nature of Chihuahua. Short-hair dogs needs a firm hand of the master, otherwise they will be very naughty. Long-haired are more affectionate and easier to education. Chihuahua loves to run, but may sit quietly in your bag during the walk.This dog is suitable for people with illiberal physical abilities.
If you have children, then they will approach the larger representatives of the breed, which perfectly get on with children, as their partners in the games and amusements.
Health problems: When choosing a dog, pay attention to the size of the head and bulging eyes. These features should not be very distinct, otherwise the dog will have problems with eyesight. You should also consider that too small dogs weighing near 4lb significantly weaker than the others. Longevity will be at dog with a weight of 4.4 - 5.5 Ft.